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Raimund Muscheler

Raimund Muscheler


Raimund Muscheler

The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 - Part 3 : The last millennium, scientific objective, and experimental design for the PMIP4 past1000 simulations


  • Johann H. Jungclaus
  • Edouard Bard
  • Mélanie Baroni
  • Pascale Braconnot
  • Jian Cao
  • Louise P. Chini
  • Tania Egorova
  • Michael Evans
  • J. Fidel González-Rouco
  • Hugues Goosse
  • George C. Hurtt
  • Fortunat Joos
  • Jed O. Kaplan
  • Myriam Khodri
  • Kees Klein Goldewijk
  • Natalie Krivova
  • Allegra N. Legrande
  • Stephan J. Lorenz
  • Jürg Luterbacher
  • Wenmin Man
  • Amanda C. Maycock
  • Malte Meinshausen
  • Anders Moberg
  • Raimund Muscheler
  • Christoph Nehrbass-Ahles
  • Bette I. Otto-Bliesner
  • Steven J. Phipps
  • Julia Pongratz
  • Eugene Rozanov
  • Gavin A. Schmidt
  • Hauke Schmidt
  • Werner Schmutz
  • Andrew Schurer
  • Alexander I. Shapiro
  • Michael Sigl
  • Jason E. Smerdon
  • Sami K. Solanki
  • Claudia Timmreck
  • Matthew Toohey
  • Ilya G. Usoskin
  • Sebastian Wagner
  • Chi Ju Wu
  • Kok Leng Yeo
  • Davide Zanchettin
  • Qiong Zhang
  • Eduardo Zorita

Summary, in English

The pre-industrial millennium is among the periods selected by the Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project (PMIP) for experiments contributing to the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) and the fourth phase of the PMIP (PMIP4). The past1000 transient simulations serve to investigate the response to (mainly) natural forcing under background conditions not too different from today, and to discriminate between forced and internally generated variability on interannual to centennial timescales. This paper describes the motivation and the experimental set-ups for the PMIP4-CMIP6 past1000 simulations, and discusses the forcing agents orbital, solar, volcanic, and land use/land cover changes, and variations in greenhouse gas concentrations. The past1000 simulations covering the pre-industrial millennium from 850 Common Era (CE) to 1849 CE have to be complemented by historical simulations (1850 to 2014 CE) following the CMIP6 protocol. The external forcings for the past1000 experiments have been adapted to provide a seamless transition across these time periods. Protocols for the past1000 simulations have been divided into three tiers. A default forcing data set has been defined for the Tier 1 (the CMIP6 past1000) experiment. However, the PMIP community has maintained the flexibility to conduct coordinated sensitivity experiments to explore uncertainty in forcing reconstructions as well as parameter uncertainty in dedicated Tier 2 simulations. Additional experiments (Tier 3) are defined to foster collaborative model experiments focusing on the early instrumental period and to extend the temporal range and the scope of the simulations. This paper outlines current and future research foci and common analyses for collaborative work between the PMIP and the observational communities (reconstructions, instrumental data).


  • Quaternary Sciences
  • MERGE: ModElling the Regional and Global Earth system

Publishing year







Geoscientific Model Development





Document type

Journal article


Copernicus GmbH


  • Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
  • Climate Research




  • ISSN: 1991-959X