The browser you are using is not supported by this website. All versions of Internet Explorer are no longer supported, either by us or Microsoft (read more here:

Please use a modern browser to fully experience our website, such as the newest versions of Edge, Chrome, Firefox or Safari etc.

Raimund Muscheler

Raimund Muscheler


Raimund Muscheler

Simulations of7Be and10Be with the GEOS-Chem global model v14.0.2 using state-of-The-Art production rates


  • Minjie Zheng
  • Hongyu Liu
  • Florian Adolphi
  • Raimund Muscheler
  • Zhengyao Lu
  • Mousong Wu
  • Nønne L. Prisle

Summary, in English

The cosmogenic radionuclides 7Be and 10Be are useful tracers for atmospheric transport studies. Combining 7Be and 10Be measurements with an atmospheric transport model can not only improve our understanding of the radionuclide transport and deposition processes but also provide an evaluation of the transport process in the model. To simulate these aerosol tracers, it is critical to evaluate the influence of radionuclide production uncertainties on simulations. Here we use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model driven by the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) reanalysis to simulate 7Be and 10Be with the state-of-The-Art production rate from the CRAC:Be (Cosmic Ray Atmospheric Cascade: Beryllium) model considering realistic spatial geomagnetic cutoff rigidities (denoted as P16spa). We also perform two sensitivity simulations: one with the default production rate in GEOS-Chem based on an empirical approach (denoted as LP67) and the other with the production rate from the CRAC:Be but considering only geomagnetic cutoff rigidities for a geocentric axial dipole (denoted as P16). The model results are comprehensively evaluated with a large number of measurements including surface air concentrations and deposition fluxes. The simulation with the P16spa production can reproduce the absolute values and temporal variability of 7Be and 10Be surface concentrations and deposition fluxes on annual and sub-Annual scales, as well as the vertical profiles of air concentrations. The simulation with the LP67 production tends to overestimate the absolute values of 7Be and 10Be concentrations. The P16 simulation suggests less than 10% differences compared to P16spa but a significant positive bias (g1/418%) in the 7Be deposition fluxes over East Asia. We find that the deposition fluxes are more sensitive to the production in the troposphere and downward transport from the stratosphere. Independent of the production models, surface air concentrations and deposition fluxes from all simulations show similar seasonal variations, suggesting a dominant meteorological influence. The model can also reasonably simulate the stratosphere-Troposphere exchange process of 7Be and 10Be by producing stratospheric contribution and 10Be/7Be ratio values that agree with measurements. Finally, we illustrate the importance of including the time-varying solar modulations in the production calculation, which significantly improve the agreement between model results and measurements, especially at mid-latitudes and high latitudes. Reduced uncertainties in the production rates, as demonstrated in this study, improve the utility of 7Be and 10Be as aerosol tracers for evaluating and testing transport and scavenging processes in global models. For future GEOS-Chem simulations of 7Be and 10Be, we recommend using the P16spa (versus default LP67) production rate.


  • Quaternary Sciences
  • MERGE: ModElling the Regional and Global Earth system
  • BECC: Biodiversity and Ecosystem services in a Changing Climate
  • Dept of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science

Publishing year







Geoscientific Model Development





Document type

Journal article


Copernicus GmbH


  • Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences




  • ISSN: 1991-959X